A 1-year retrospective chart review was performed to evaluate the effect of intraosseous infusions (IO) on the time required to establish vascular access in pediatric patients requiring immediate vascular access for resuscitation. Eighty-one patients were identified, including 29 pulseless and non-breathing and 52 noncardiopulmonary arrest children, who required intravenous fluids or medication for resuscitation. Comparing the results with a previous review, the IO method effectively reduced the time needed to establish vascular access in the arrested group when standard techniques failed, particularly in the child <2 years old. The IO method was not used effectively in the non-arrest group, as evidenced by a significantly greater mean time required to establish vascular access. There were no significant complications related to the IO procedure. Nine (50%) of the patients receiving IO fluids or medication had clinical and/or laboratory evidence that these substances reached the central circulation. Early use of IO infusion in the resuscitation is recommended for not only the arrested patient, but also the critical nonarrested patient requiring immediate vascular access. © 1988.