Medical directors of pediatric emergency departments were surveyed by mail to determine the present role of their pediatric hospitals in general, and emergency departments in particular, in the evaluation and management of pediatric sexual assault and abuse. Seventy-four percent of the responses were from communities with an estimated yearly incidence of sexual abuse cases greater than 500. Sixty-eight percent of the communities had a designated pediatric sexual assault center. Thirty-two percent were affiliated with adult facilities and 68% with pediatric facilities. Of those hospitals responding, initial evaluation was most often performed in the emergency department in 77%. Most initial evaluations were performed by resident (PL-2 or above) level physicians (59%). The availability of non-physician professionals, eg, social workers, was felt to be always or usually adequate in 57% and occasionally, rarely, or never adequate in 43%. Estimated physician time required for evaluations averaged less than 60 minutes in 52%, 60 to 90 minutes in 32%, and greater than 90 minutes in 16%. Other patients were felt to be always or frequently compromised in 34% and occasionally compromised in another 44%. The directors rated the abilities of their respective departments to evaluate and manage these patients as excellent in 33%, good in 33%, adequate in 29%, and inadequate in 4%. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.