Objective.We sought to identify causes for infertility in women with and without rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods.Women with RA were matched to healthy controls. Differences in anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and anovulation were analyzed. Results.Women with RA had lower AMH (β -1.05, 95% CI -2.09 to -0.005), but no difference was observed when AMH was log-transformed. No difference in anovulation was observed. Infertility prevalence was similar between groups, primarily attributable to polycystic ovary syndrome in healthy controls but largely unexplained in women with RA. Conclusion. AMH was lower in women with RA, but reasons for infertility among women with RA remain unknown.