Background: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves left ventricular (LV) function, size, mitral regurgitation, and clinical outcomes. Whether these improvements are due to the short-term effects of improvement in synchrony or contractile performance, or to long-term improvement in ventricular structure and function remains insufficiently elucidated. Methods and Results: We used echocardiographic data from 63 patients enrolled in the MADIT-CRT trial who, after 1 year of CRT therapy, underwent echocardiographic evaluation with CRT turned both on and off within minutes. LV volumes, LV ejection fraction, left atrial (LA) volumes, and right ventricular function were assessed at baseline and in the on and off modes within a 5-minute time-frame at 12 months. Speckle-tracking strain analysis was used to assess LV dyssynchrony and contractile function. Interruption of long-term CRT resulted in acute deterioration of LV and RV function and acute increase in LV and LA volumes, although not to baseline. Acute withdrawal was also associated with increased dyssynchrony (SD time to peak transverse strain 178 ± 68 ms vs 195 ± 62 ms; P =.16; and SD time to peak longitudinal strain 108 ± 46 ms vs 125 ± 55 ms; P =.046). However, there was no deterioration in contractile function (global longitudinal strain), which had improved with CRT (-9.8 ± 4.3% vs -10.0 ± 3.7%; P = .93). Conclusions: Despite substantial LV reverse remodeling with CRT, interruption of long-term CRT after 12 months resulted in an acute worsening of LV size and function, LA volumes, and right ventricular function, with concomitant worsening of ventricular synchrony despite minimal change to the observed improvement in LV strain measures of contractile function. These findings suggest that the beneficial reverse remodeling associated with CRT may be mostly dependent on active pacing, although intrinsic improvements in contractile function may persist beyond termination of pacing. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.