Prognostic importance of dyspnea for cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in persons without prevalent cardiopulmonary disease: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study

Academic Article


  • Background The relationship between dyspnea and incident heart failure (HF) and myocardial infarction (MI) among patients without previously diagnosed cardiopulmonary disease is unclear. We studied the prognostic relevance of self-reported dyspnea for cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality in persons without previously diagnosed cardiopulmonary disease. Methods and Results We studied 10 881 community-dwelling participants (mean age 57-6, 56% women, 25% black) who were free of prevalent cardiopulmonary disease from Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Dyspnea status at study entry using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale. The primary outcomes were time to HF, MI or all-cause death. Dyspnea prevalence was 22%, and was mild (mMRC grade 1 or 2) in 21% and moderate-tosevere (mMRC 3 or 4) in 1%. The main correlates of dyspnea were older age, female sex, higher BMI and active smoking. Over a follow-up of 19-5 years, greater self-reported dyspnea severity was associated with worse prognosis. Mild dyspnea was associated with significantly heightened risk of HF (adjusted Hazard Ratio, HR,1.30; 95% CI: 1.16-1.46), MI (adjusted HR 1.34; 95%CI: 1.20-1.50), and death (adjusted HR 1.16; 95%CI: 1.06-1.26), with moderate/severe dyspnea associated with an even greater risk (adjusted HR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.59-2.89; 1.93, 95%CI: 1.41-2.56; 1.96, 95%CI: 1.55-2.48, respectively). Conclusion In community-dwelling persons free of previously diagnosed cardiopulmonary disease, self-reported dyspnea is common and, even when of mild intensity, it is independently associated with a greater risk of incident HF, MI, and death. Our data emphasize the prognostic importance of even mild self-reported dyspnea for cardiovascular outcomes.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • PLoS ONE  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Santos M; Kitzman DW; Matsushita K; Loehr L; Sueta CA; Shah AM
  • Volume

  • 11
  • Issue

  • 10