BACKGROUND: Increased activity of IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7) is associated with cellular senescence, tissue aging, and obesity. IGFBP7 may be related to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, a disease of elderly obese people. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a subset of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (N=228) randomized to receive sacubitril/valsartan versus valsartan, IGFBP7 concentrations were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 36 weeks. Patient characteristics and echocardiographic measures including left atrial (LA) size and volume, ratio of early mitral inflow velocity/annular diastolic velocity, and ratio of early diastole/peak late diastolic velocity were assessed as a function of IGFBP7 concentration. Effect of sacubitril/valsartan on IGFBP7 concentrations was analyzed. With increasing baseline IGFBP7 quartiles, LA size and LA volume index (LAVi) were higher (both P<0.001); modest association between IGFBP7 and higher early mitral inflow velocity/annular diastolic velocity ( P=0.03) and early diastole/peak late diastolic velocity ratio ( P=0.04) was also seen. IGFBP7 concentrations were higher in those with LAVi ≥34 mL/m2 compared with lower LAVi at all time points (all P<0.01). IGFBP7 independently predicted LAVi at baseline even in the presence of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) concentrations; highest LAVi was seen in those with elevation in both biomarkers. Treatment with sacubitril/valsartan resulted in lower IGFBP7 concentrations over 36 weeks compared with valsartan (adjusted treatment effect, -7%; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, concentrations of the cellular senescence biomarker IGFBP7 were associated with abnormalities in diastolic filling and LA dilation. Treatment with sacubitril/valsartan resulted in lower IGFBP7 concentrations compared with valsartan. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00887588.