Approximately half of the patients with signs and symptoms of heart failure have a left ventricular ejection fraction that is not markedly abnormal. Despite the historically initial surprise, heightened risks for heart failure specific major adverse events occur across the broad range of ejection fraction, including normal. The recognition of the magnitude of the problem of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in the past 20 years has spurred an explosion of clinical investigation and growing intensity of informative outcome trials. This article addresses the historic development of this component of the heart failure syndrome, including the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and existing and planned therapeutic studies. Looking forward, more specific phenotyping and even genotyping of subpopulations should lead to improvements in outcomes from future trials.