© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020. The advancement toward a clinical application for porcine islets to cure diabetes in humans must include reproducible long-term successes in non-human primate (NHP) models. Many dedicated researchers around the world are continuing to work toward this goal. In this chapter, we describe procedures for islet isolation of pancreatic islets from adult and neonatal/fetal pigs. We further include procedures for the induction of diabetes in non-human primates and subsequent insulin therapy, islet transplantation, immunosuppression, and also the daily maintenance of xenotransplanted NHPs. The procedures that we outline in this chapter are ones that we have successfully utilized in pig-to-NHP islet transplantation models. However, where appropriate, alternative methods will also be identified.