D Rhamnose β-hederin (DRβ-H), a novel oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Clematis ganpiniana, has been demonstrated to be effective against various types of tumor. However, the exact role of DRβ-H on breast cancer remains largely unresolved. In the present study, it was observed that DRβ-H exhibited anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7/S). DRβ-H was able to inhibit exosome secretion, and the level of exosomes was positively associated with cell growth after absorption and internalization by target breast cancer cells. By analyzing the miRNA profiles of exosomes and MCF-7/S, it was identified that several miRNAs were detected exclusively in exosomes. Knockdown of the top five exosomal miRNAs and an MCF-7/S proliferation assay indicated that exosomal miR-130a and miR-425 may enhance MCF-7/S cell viability. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed the involvement of miR-130a and miR-425 in pathways associated with malignant cell proliferation. These results demonstrated that DRβ-H inhibited MCF-7/S cell growth through reducing exosome release.