Sex hormone metabolism is altered during mammary gland tumorigenesis, and different metabolites may have different effects on mammary epithelial cells. This study aimed to evaluate associations between urinary sexual metabolite levels and breast cancer risk among premenopausal women of Mainland China. The molecular metabolism of the cancer-related metabolites was also explored based on the clinical data. The sex hormone metabolites in the urine samples of patients with breast cancer versus normal healthy women were analyzed comprehensively. Among many alterations of sex hormone metabolisms, 4-hydroxy estrogen (4-OH-E) metabolite was found to be significantly increased in the urine samples of patients with breast cancer compared with the normal healthy controls. This was the most important risk factor for breast cancer. Several experiments were conducted in vitro and in vivo to probe this mechanism. 4-Hydroxyestradiol (4-OH-E2) was found to induce malignant transformation of breast cells and tumorigenesis in nude mice. At the molecular level, 4-OH-E2 compromised the function of spindle-assembly checkpoint and rendered resistance to the anti-microtubule drug. Further, transgenic mice with high expression of CYP1B1, a key enzyme of 4-hydroxy metabolites, were established and stimulated with estrogen. Cancerous tissue was found to appear in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.