Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) was first described as a coreceptor implicated in neuronal guidance that bound members of the semaphorin/collapsin family. NRP-1 is also expressed in endothelial cells and is believed to promote angiogenesis by acting as a coreceptor with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2. Recent studies suggest that NRP-1 can function through both a VEGF-dependent and VEGF-independent fashion. Expression of NRP-1 has been shown in many human tumors, including pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The exact role of NRP-1 in tumor cells is unknown, particularly in cells that lack the NRP-1 coreceptors VEGF receptor 2 and Plexin-A1. To discern the regulatory role(s) of NRP-1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma that lack these coreceptors, we overexpressed both full-length NRP-1 and a deletion form of NRP-1 that does not interact with semaphorin or VEGF. Overexpression of either isoform reduced several key tumorigenic properties, including anchorage-independent cell growth and migration in vitro, and resulted in reduced tumor incidence and tumor volume in vivo. Conversely, reduction of NRP-1 expression by small interfering RNA targeting led to enhanced tumor growth. Thus, NRP-1 may play distinct growth regulatory roles in different tumor types, and altering NRP-1 expression or function may be a means of influencing the growth of pancreatic cancers. ©2005 American Association for Cancer Research.