Randomized controlled trial to compare immunogenicity of standard-dose intramuscular versus intradermal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand

Academic Article


  • Background. Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk for severe influenza, yet immune responses to standard-dose intramuscular (IM) influenza vaccine are suboptimal in this population. Intradermal (ID) delivery of influenza vaccine might improve immune response through enhanced stimulation of dendritic cells. Methods. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial to compare the immunogenicity of off-label standard-dose (15 μg) ID vs standard-dose (15 μg) IM inactive influenza vaccine in HIV-infected men in Bangkok, Thailand. The primary study outcome was seroconversion (minimum titer of 1:40 and ≥4-fold rise in antibody titer) at 1 month postvaccination based on serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against each vaccine strain. Adverse events (AEs) in the 7 days following vaccination were also assessed. Results. We enrolled 400 HIV-infected participants; 200 were randomly assigned to receive IM and 200 ID vaccine. Vaccine arms were well-balanced with respect to age, CD4 cell count, HIV RNA load, and antiretroviral treatment. Percentage of seroconversion to all (ID 14% vs IM 15%; P =. 8) or at least 1 (ID 69% vs IM 68%; P =. 7) of the 3 vaccine strains did not differ significantly between ID vs IM vaccine recipients. A higher proportion of participants who received ID vaccine had mild injection-site AEs compared with participants who received IM vaccine (77% vs 27%). Conclusions. There were no significant differences in the immunogenicity of standard-dose ID vs IM influenza vaccine in this HIV-infected population in Thailand. Additional strategies to enhance immune responses to influenza vaccine among HIV-infected persons are needed.
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    Author List

  • Garg S; Thongcharoen P; Praphasiri P; Chitwarakorn A; Sathirapanya P; Fernandez S; Rungrojcharoenkit K; Chonwattana W; Mock PA; Sukwicha W
  • Start Page

  • 383
  • End Page

  • 391
  • Volume

  • 62
  • Issue

  • 3