Nutritional Risks in Adolescents After Bariatric Surgery

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Background & Aims: Little is known about prevalence and risk factors for nutritional deficiencies in adolescents after metabolic bariatric surgery. We performed a 5-year prospective cohort study of these. Methods: Adolescents who had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n = 161) or vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n = 67) were enrolled at 5 tertiary-care centers from March 2007 through February 2012. The final analysis cohort included 226 participants (161 who had RYGB and 65 who had VSG). We measured serum levels of ferritin; red blood cell folate; vitamins A, D, B , B ; and parathyroid hormone at baseline and annually for 5 years. General linear mixed models were used to examine changes over time and identify factors associated with nutritional deficiencies. Results: The participants were 75% female and 72% white, with a mean age of 16.5 ± 1.6 years and mean body mass index of 52.7 ± 9.4 kg/m at surgery. Mean body mass index decreased 23% at 5 years, and did not differ significantly between procedures. After RYGB, but not VSG, serum concentrations of vitamin B significantly decreased whereas serum levels of transferrin and parathyroid hormone increased. Ferritin levels decreased significantly after both procedures. Hypo-ferritinemia was observed in 2.5% of patients before RYGB and 71% at 5 y after RYGB (P < .0001), and 11% of patients before VSG and 45% 5 y after VSG (P = .002). No significant changes in serum levels of folate or vitamins A, B , or D were found between baseline and 5 y after either procedure. By 5 y, 59% of RYGB and 27% of VSG recipients had 2 or more nutritional deficiencies. Risk factors associated with specific deficiencies included surgery type, female sex, black race, supplementation intake, weight regain, and for females, pregnancy. Conclusions: In a prospective study of adolescents who underwent RYGB or VSG, we observed nutritional deficiencies by 5 y after the procedures—particularly in iron and B after RYGB. Ongoing nutrient monitoring and supplementation are recommended for all patients, but surgery type, supplementation intake, sex, and race might affect risk. (Clinical trial registration: Adolescent Bariatrics: Assessing Health Benefits and Risk [also known as Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS)], NCT00474318.) 1 12 12 1 12 2
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Xanthakos SA; Khoury JC; Inge TH; Jenkins TM; Modi AC; Michalsky MP; Chen MK; Courcoulas AP; Harmon CM; Brandt ML
  • Start Page

  • 1070
  • End Page

  • 1081.e5
  • Volume

  • 18
  • Issue

  • 5