Background and Objectives: Primary colonic lymphoma (PCL) is rare, heterogeneous, and presents a therapeutic challenge for surgeons. Optimal treatment strategies are difficult to standardize, leading to variation in therapy. Our objective was to describe the patient characteristics, short-term outcomes, and five-year survival of patients undergoing nonpalliative surgery for PCL. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis in the National Cancer Database. Included patients underwent surgery for PCL between 2004 to 2014. Patients with metastases and palliative operations were excluded. Univariate predictors of overall survival were analyzed using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: We identified 2153 patients. Median patient age was 68. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma accounted for 57% of tumors. 30- and 90-Day mortality were high (5.6% and 11.1%, respectively). Thirty-nine percent of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. For patients surviving 90 days, 5-year survival was 71.8%. Chemotherapy improved survival (surgery+chemo, 75.4% vs surgery, 68.6%; P =.01). Adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with overall survival after controlling for age, comorbidity, and lymphoma subtype (HR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.51; P =.01). Conclusions: Patients undergoing surgery for PCL have high rates of margin positivity and high short-term mortality. Chemotherapy improves survival, but <50% receive it. These data suggest the opportunity for improvement of care in patients with PCL.