© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement We have developed a human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell and endothelial cell co-cultured microfluidic model to mimic the in vivo human airway. This airway-on-a-chip was designed with a central epithelial channel and two flanking endothelial channels, with a three-dimensional monolayers of cells growing along the four walls of the channel, forming central clear lumens. These cultures mimic airways and microvasculature in vivo. The central channel cells are grown at air-liquid interface and show features of airway differentiation including tight-junction formation, mucus production, and ciliated cells. Combined with novel micro-optical coherence tomography, this chip enables functional imaging of the interior of the lumen, which includes quantitation of cilia motion including beat frequency and mucociliary transport. This airway-on-a chip is a significant step forward in the development of microfluidics models for functional imaging.