As part of a long-term evaluation of endosteal dental implants in primates, this paper describes the histological response to plate-form and root-form implants. Thirty-six primates received 48 mandibular distal abutment implants. After healing, the implants were restored with fixed partial dentures, which remained in function for two years. A subset of the group was ligated at the gingival sulcus to biologically stress tissues supporting the implants. Crestal bone height around implants was quantified using digital subtraction radiographic techniques. The ligated implants lost more crestal bone than non-ligated implants, as shown by ANOVA (P < 0.05). After retrieval, implants were embedded and sectioned for histomorphometric analysis including measurement of per cent osseointegration. Both plate-form and root-form non-ligated implants demonstrated about 60% osseointegration. When ligated, plate-form implants dropped to an average integration of only 34%, while root-form implants maintained 62% integration, a significant difference. These data show that in this primate model, plate-form and root-form implants maintained integration while in function for two years. When stressed with ligation, root-form implants maintained relative amounts of osseointegration, while per cent osseointegration of plate-form implants decreased. Copyright © Blackwell Munksgaard 2002.