Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a school-based, low-volume strength training program on energy expenditure, strength, and physical fitness in obese prepubertal girls. Methods: A longitudinal, 5-month strength training exercise program was undertaken by healthy, obese (>95th percentlie weight-for-height, N = 11) girls age 7-10 yr. The following were measured: strength by the one-repetition maximum test; fitness (V̇O(2peak)) by a treadmill exercise test; resting metabolic rate (RMR), 24-h sedentary energy expenditure (SEE), and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) by room respiration calorimetry; and total energy expenditure (TEE) by the doubly labeled water method. Physical activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as TEE - (RMR + 0.1*TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) as TEE/MR. An age-matched, nonoverweight control group was measured for V̇O(2peak) and RMR over the same time period. Results: Strength increased by 19.6 and 20.0% in the upper and lower body (P < 0.01), respectively. V̇O(2peak) (mL·min-1) increased in both groups over time (P < 0.05), but not when covaried for fat-free mass (FFM) or weight. After adjusting for FFM or weight, RMR did not change, but SMR and 24-h SEE decreased significantly in the exercise group. There were no changes in nonprotein respiratory quotient or substrate oxidation. No changes in TEE, AEE, and PAL occurred, either unadjusted or adjusted for FFM or weight. Conclusion: This long-term, school-based, low-volume strength training program favorably increases strength in obese prepubertal girls but does not increase their daily energy expenditure.