Advances with implantation of synthetic biomaterials in the setting of orthopedic surgery have clearly resulted in improvements in patient outcomes. However, all implants have been shown to have associated risks. For example, ionic and particulate debris from implants have been shown to engage in biological interactions with the native tissue, and have been associated with a wide range of metabolic, bacteriologic, immunologic, and oncogenic effects. The propensity of synthetic biomaterials to undergo degradation, producing an inflammatory reaction or other sequelae, has been well recognized. The use of porous implants, which allow for a greater interface area between native tissue and the prosthesis, may magnify the interaction between biologically active tissue and synthetic devices in some situations, giving rise to new and intriguing issues concerning biocorrosion and biocompatibility. In this article, we report the case of a high-grade conventional osteosarcoma occurring at the site of a modular porous-surfaced titanium and cobalt alloy total hip prosthesis 3 years after device implantation. Detailed spectroscopic trace metal analysis was performed and elevated levels of both vanadium and chromium, but not aluminum, nickel, or titanium were identified in the tumor. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.