Esthetics: Patients' perceptions of dental attractiveness

Academic Article


  • Purpose: The importance of dentofacial attractiveness to the psychosocial well-being of an individual has been well established. Very little information is available regarding dental patient perceptions of a pleasing esthetic image. The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinctive to attractive smiles versus unattractive smiles, as perceived by patients. Materials and Methods: Standardized format photographs (5 × 7 in, matte finish, at f-32 and 1:2 magnification) of eight male and eight female smiles, framing only lips and teeth, were viewed by 297 subjects. The smiles exhibited differences in symmetry, tooth shade, number of teeth displayed, and height of maxillary lip line, and included both restored and unrestored teeth. Respondents ranked the photographs in order from most to least appealing appearance. Respondents viewed each series of photographs in a similar lighting and time period. A questionnaire identified the respondent's age, sex, race, education, income, and home town. Twenty-five demographic groups were established from the information in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using stepwise discriminant analysis to determine the combination of smile characteristics that best predicted the ranking. Results: The same female smile was chosen as the most attractive by 24 of the 25 demographic groups. This smile is characterized by natural teeth having light shade, high lip line, a large display of teeth, and radiating symmetry. Two female smiles typified by darker shade and asymmetry were rated by all groups as being least attractive. Two male smiles were judged equal as the most pleasing esthetically. Respondents favored those smiles characterized by light shade, a moderate display of teeth, moderate lip line, and a symmetrical arrangement of teeth. One male smile characterized by darker shade was rated as least attractive. Conclusions: In all cases, tooth shade was the most important factor, followed in sequence by unrestored natural teeth and number of teeth displayed. No correlation was found to exist between specific demographic groups and smile variables. Copyright © 1996 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Dunn WJ; Murchison DF; Broome JC
  • Start Page

  • 166
  • End Page

  • 171
  • Volume

  • 5
  • Issue

  • 3