Copyright © 2019 Gaydos et al. A prospective multicenter clinical study involving subjects from 21 sites across the United States was conducted to validate the performance of a new in vitro diagnostic nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium. Seven urogenital specimen types (n=11,556) obtained from 1,778 females, aged 15 to 74 years, and 1,583 males, aged 16 to 82 years, were tested with the Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay, an investigational transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) NAAT for the detection of M. genitalium 16S rRNA. Infected status for enrolled subjects was established using results obtained from testing either self-collected vaginal swab or clinician-collected male urethral swab specimens with a composite reference method consisting of three transcription-mediated amplification NAATs targeting unique regions of M. genitalium 16S or 23S rRNA. M. genitalium prevalence was 10.2% in females and 10.6% in males; prevalence was high in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects for both sexes. Compared to the subject infected status standard, the investigational test had sensitivity and specificity estimates, respectively, of 98.9% and 98.5% for subjectcollected vaginal swabs, 92.0% and 98.0% for clinician-collected vaginal swabs, 81.5% and 98.3% for endocervical swabs, 77.8% and 99.0% for female urine, and 98.2% and 99.6% for male urethral swabs, 88.4% and 97.8% for self-collected penile meatal swabs, and 90.9% and 99.4% for male urine specimens. For all seven specimen types, withinspecimen positive and negative agreements between the investigational test and the composite reference standard ranged from 94.2% to 98.3% and from 98.5 to 99.9%, respectively. These results provide clinical efficacy evidence for the first FDA-cleared NAAT for M. genitalium detection in the United States.