© 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Introduction: Rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is rare and comprises about 3% of GIST. Methods: Registry data was collected by the Life Raft Group June 1976 to November 2017. All patients had a histologic GIST diagnosis. Demographic, clinicopathologic, and clinical outcome data were patient reported. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Results: Of 1798 patients in the database, 48 had localized rectal GIST (2.7%). Patients were frequently male (58.3%) and non-Hispanic whites (58.3%). Median age at diagnosis was 52 years. Most patients (77%) were diagnosed in the imatinib era (2001 to current). Over half (54.2%) of the cohort had mutation testing and all profiled tumors possessed KIT mutations (exon 9: 7.7%, exon 11: 88.5%, and exon 13: 3.8%). Most evaluable patients (26/28; 92.9%) had high-risk disease (modified NIH criteria) and nearly all patients (95.8%) received imatinib. Median follow-up was 8.8 years (range, 0.3-30.7) and overall RFS was 8.0 years (95% CI, 2.9-13.1). Thirty-two percent (12/37) of patients in the post-imatinib era developed recurrent disease. Diagnosis in the imatinib era was associated with improved RFS (HR = 0.22, 95% CI, 0.08-0.62; P =.004) in the multivariable model. Conclusion: We find that disease recurrence remains prevalent in one-third of patients treated during the imatinib-era.