We retrospectively studied outcomes for HIV-infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between January 1999 and June 2009. Patient demographics, receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), reason for ICU admission and survival to ICU and hospital discharge were recorded. Comparison was made against outcomes for general medical patients contemporaneously admitted to the same ICU. One hundred and ninety-two HIV-infected patients had 222 ICU admissions; 116 patients required mechanical ventilation (MV) and 43 required renal replacement therapy. ICU admission was due to an HIV-associated diagnosis in 113 patients; 37 had Pneumocystis pneumonia. Survival to ICU discharge and hospital discharge for HIV-infected patients was 78% and 70%, respectively, and was 75% and 68% among 2065 general medical patients with 2274 ICU admissions; P 1/4 0.452 and P 1/4 0.458, respectively. HIV infection was newly diagnosed in 42 patients; their ICU and hospital survival was 69% and 57%, respectively. From multivariable analysis, factors associated with ICU survival were patient's age (odds ratio [OR] 1/4 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1/4 0.53 - 1.02] per 10-year increase), albumin (OR 1/4 1.05 [1.00 - 1.09] per 1 g/dL increase), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (OR 1/4 0.55 [0.35-0.87] per 10 unit increase), receipt of HAART (OR 1/4 2.44 [1.01 - 4.94]) and need for MV (OR 1/4 0.14 [0.06 - 0.36]). In the era of HAART, HIV-infected patients should be offered ICU admission if it is likely to be of benefit.