The lungs of individuals infected with HIV are often affected by opportunistic infections and tumours; over two-thirds of patients have at least one respiratory episode during the course of their disease. Despite the availability of effective prophylaxis, infection with the fungus Pneumocystis carinii remains a common cause of respiratory disease. Bacterial infections, which occur more frequently in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, and tuberculosis are increasing causes of morbidity and mortality. Kaposi's sarcoma, the commonest HIV-associated malignancy, may affect the lungs in addition to the skin. Pulmonary involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma is common in those with disseminated disease.