Pooled human immunoglobulin labeled with indium-111 (111In-HIgG) was used to identify the presence and extent of infection in patients positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), presenting with either symptoms and/or signs of acute chest infection or with pyrexia without localizing signs or symptoms. Fifty-five studies were performed in 51 patients with suspected chest infection or pyrexia without localizing signs. Of these, 111In-HIgG identified intrapulmonary accumulation in 17 patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, eight with bacterial pneumonia, five with cytomegalovirus pneumonia, three with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection and one with a fungal pneumonia. There was no intrapulmonary accumulation of 111In-HIgG in five patients with bronchopulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma and in three patients with intrathoracic lymphoma. Quantification of lung/heart activity was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in patients with active chest infection compared with those with intrapulmonary tumor or no active lung pathology. Indium-111-HIgG scintigraphy also localized at 14 sites of extrapulmonary infection, including six patients with colitis. There were no false-negative studies but false-positive uptake was seen in four studies. These results confirm that 111In-HIgG correctly identifies the presence and extent of infection in patients positive for HIV antibody.