In recent years the clinical face of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome has changed significantly as a consequence of use of prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and combination antiretroviral therapy. In this context several opportunistic pathogens have emerged as causes of clinically important disease. Many of these infective agents have previously been defined by specific geographical locations. Their clinical presentation frequently mimics other (non) opportunistic infections with which they may co-exist. The diagnosis is frequently delayed as the diagnostic-possibility may not be in the clinician's differential diagnosis. Invasive procedures are frequently required in order to secure a diagnosis. Despite treatment, prognosis is often poor. Clinicians should be aware of these opportunistic pathogens in order that a timely diagnosis may be made and appropriate therapy given.