Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is caused by the yeastlike fungus Pneumocystis. Despite the widespread availability of specific anti-. Pneumocystis prophylaxis and of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), PCP remains a common AIDS-defining presentation. PCP is increasingly recognized among persons living in Africa. Pneumocystis cannot be cultured and bronchoalveolar lavage is the gold standard diagnostic test to diagnose PCP. Use of adjunctive biomarkers for diagnosis requires further evaluation. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains the preferred first-line treatment regimen. In the era of ART, mortality from PCP is approximately 10% to 12%. The optimal time to start ART in a patient with PCP remains uncertain. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.