Approach to Fungal Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Individuals: Pneumocystis and Beyond

Academic Article


  • Many fungi cause pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pathogens include Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Talaromyces marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. Because symptoms are frequently nonspecific, a high index of suspicion for fungal infection is required for diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of fungal infection in HIV-infected patients frequently depend on the degree of immunosuppression and the CD4+ helper T cell count. Establishing definitive diagnosis is important because treatments differ. Primary and secondary prophylaxes depend on CD4+ helper T cell counts, geographic location, and local prevalence of disease.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Wang RJ; Miller RF; Huang L
  • Start Page

  • 465
  • End Page

  • 477
  • Volume

  • 38
  • Issue

  • 3