This data article quantifies the extent of shared bicycle riding risks for shared-bicycle riders in urban China. The data were collected through a WeChat-based online survey, with a valid sample of 1960 respondents. It reports the basic descriptive statistics through eight tables concerning various unsafe shared bicycle riding behaviors, and complete frequency data from riders concerning eight unsafe riding behaviors. The data can be used for comparisons with other studies using the same outcome measures, which are valuable to generate specialized and targeted solutions to reduce unsafe riding behaviors. For further information, please refer to the full article entitled “Unsafe riding behaviors of shared-bicycle riders in urban China: A retrospective survey”.(Wu et al., 2019).