VISTA is an inhibitory immune checkpoint that is increased after ipilimumab therapy in patients with prostate cancer

Academic Article


  • To date, anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) or anti-PD-1 (nivolumab) monotherapy has not been demonstrated to be of substantial clinical benefit in patients with prostate cancer. To identify additional immune-inhibitory pathways in the prostate-tumor microenvironment, we evaluated untreated and ipilimumab-treated tumors from patients in a presurgical clinical trial. Levels of the PD-L1 and VISTA inhibitory molecules increased on independent subsets of macrophages in treated tumors. Our data suggest that VISTA represents another compensatory inhibitory pathway in prostate tumors after ipilimumab therapy.
  • Published In

  • Nature Medicine  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Gao J; Ward JF; Pettaway CA; Shi LZ; Subudhi SK; Vence LM; Zhao H; Chen J; Chen H; Efstathiou E
  • Start Page

  • 551
  • End Page

  • 555
  • Volume

  • 23
  • Issue

  • 5