Recombinant adenovirus vectors and MVA vectors were used in prime boost vaccine regimens to address the impact of repeated immunizations on transgene product-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies, phenotypes, function, and localization. We show that a regimen with three immunizations incorporating MVA, human adenovirus serotype 5 and chimpanzee-derived adenoviruses serotype 68 or 7 yields high transgene product-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in spleen, blood, lymph nodes, and peritoneal lavage. Furthermore, upon triple immunization increased frequencies of transgene-specific T cells were measured at mucosal sites such as mesenteric lymph nodes, intestinal epithelium, and Peyer's patches. Multiple dose vaccine regimens that markedly increase functionally active transgene-specific T cells and target them to the appropriate ports of entry may be important in protection against pathogens such as HIV-1. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.