© 2019 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston 2019. It is now becoming clear that human metabolism is extremely plastic and varies substantially between healthy individuals. Understanding the biochemistry that underlies this physiology will enable personalized clinical interventions related to metabolism. Mitochondrial quality control and the detailed mechanisms of mitochondrial energy generation are central to understanding susceptibility to pathologies associated with aging including cancer, cardiac and neurodegenerative disease. A precision medicine approach is also needed to evaluate the impact of exercise or caloric restriction on health. In this review, we discuss how technical advances in assessing mitochondrial genetics, cellular bioenergetics and metabolomics offer new insights into developing metabolism-based clinical tests and metabolotherapies. We discuss informatics approaches, which can define the bioenergetic-metabolite-interactome and how this can help define healthy energetics. We propose that a personalized medicine approach that integrates metabolism and bioenergetics with physiologic parameters is central for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases with a metabolic etiology. New approaches that measure energetics and metabolomics from cells isolated from human blood or tissues can be of diagnostic and prognostic value to precision medicine. This is particularly significant with the development of new metabolotherapies, such as mitochondrial transplantation, which could help treat complex metabolic diseases.