The association of age at menopause and all-cause and cause-specific mortality by race, postmenopausal hormone use, and smoking status

Academic Article

Abstract

  • © 2019 While a mean age at menopause of 51 years has been reported in the United States (U.S.), some U.S. women experience menopause before age 45, possibly increasing risk of cardiovascular mortality; however, the role in all-cause and cerebrovascular-related mortality is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between age at menopause and all-cause and cause-specific mortality by race, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use, and smoking status. REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) is a population-based study of 30,239 participants aged ≥45 years enrolled between 2003 and 2007 of whom 14,361 were postmenopausal women. Age at menopause was defined as <45 (early) or ≥45. All-cause and cause-specific mortality were ascertained through 2013. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between age at menopause and mortality, adjusting for baseline measures. Of 11,287 eligible women (6403 white; 4884 black), mean menopause age was 45.2 (SD 7.9) with 1524 deaths over 7.1 years. Significant interactions were detected between early age at menopause (39%) and HRT use in association with all-cause mortality (p < 0.01), mortality from coronary heart disease (p = 0.06), and mortality from all other causes (p = 0.04). An association between early age at menopause and all-cause mortality was observed among ever-HRT users (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10–1.56), but not never-HRT users (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.85–1.20). There were no differences in associations examined by race or smoking status. Increased all-cause mortality risk was observed for ever-HRT users with menopause before age 45.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Malek AM; Vladutiu CJ; Meyer ML; Cushman M; Newman R; Lisabeth LD; Kleindorfer D; Lakkur S; Howard VJ
  • Volume

  • 15