© 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel. Copyright: All rights reserved. Ammonia is a neurotoxic molecule that causes cerebral edema and encephalopathy. Ammonia is either produced in excess or poorly purified during severe hepatic insufficiency, poisoning, infection, and inborn errors of metabolism. During continuous renal replacement therapy, ammonia clearance is determined by the dialysate flow rate and the dialyzer surface area. Extra-renal blood purification for ammonia clearance has been studied in neonates with urea cycle disorders. Prognostic factors affecting patient outcome are thought to be the duration of coma, the patient's clinical status prior to dialysis, and the ammonia removal rate. In this review, we discuss the various dialytic modalities used for ammonia clearance as well as the thresholds for initiating dialysis and the better strategy ensures rapid patient protection from cerebral edema and herniation induced by hyperammonemia.