The majority of melanomas carry an oncogenic BRAF mutation (BRAFV600E), which results in constitutive kinase activity driving melanoma proliferation. While inhibitors of BRAFV600E (BRAFi) effectively lead to rapid tumor shrinkage, most patients treated with BRAFi develop acquired resistance. Identification of factors as regulators of melanoma growth and as potential sources of resistance is thus crucial for the design of improved therapies to treat advanced melanoma with more durable responses. Here, we show that KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP) is critical for proliferation of melanoma cells without and with acquired resistance to vemurafenib. Silencing KSRP reduces cell proliferation and augments the growth suppressive effects of vemurafenib. We identify killin (KLLN), a p53-regulated DNA replication inhibitor, as a downstream effector of growth inhibition by KSRP silencing and demonstrate that KSRP promotes decay of KLLN mRNA through an RNA-protein interaction. Using heterologous mRNA reporters, we show that a U-rich element within the 3′ untranslated region of KLLN is responsible for KSRP-dependent mRNA decay. These findings implicate that KSRP is an important regulator of melanoma cell growth in part through controlling KLLN mRNA stability.