Low- and middle-income countries and resource-limited regions are major contributors to perinatal and infant mortality. Oxygen is widely used for resuscitation in high- and middle-income settings. However, oxygen supplementation is not available in resource-limited regions. Oxygen supplementation for resuscitation at birth has adverse effects in human/animal model studies. There has been a change with resultant recommendations for restrictive oxygen use in neonatal resuscitation. Neonatal resuscitation without supplemental oxygen decreases mortality and morbidities. Oxygen in resource-limited settings for neonatal resuscitation is ideal as a backup for selected resuscitations but should not be a limiting factor for implementing basic life-saving efforts.