© 2019, The Author(s). In recent years, a significant number of studies have investigated the preventive role of vitamin D in a number of different neoplasms. In this study, we analyze various components of the vitamin D signaling pathways in the human uveal tract and uveal melanoma, including analysis of the expression of vitamin D receptors (VDR), the activating and inactivating hydroxylases, respectively, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and the retinoic acid-related orphan receptors (ROR) α (RORα) and γ (RORγ) in these tissues. We further analyzed the expression of VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and ROR in relation to melanin levels, clinical stage and prognosis. Our study indicated that the uveal melanoma melanin level inversely correlated with VDR expression. We further showed that vitamin D is metabolized in uveal melanoma. This is significant because until now there has been no paper published, that would describe presence of VDR, hydroxylases CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and RORα and RORγ in the human uveal tract and uveal melanomas. The outcomes of our research can contribute to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods in uveal tract disorders, especially in uveal melanoma. The presented associations between vitamin D signaling elements and uveal melanoma in comparison to uveal tract encourage future clinical research with larger patients’ population.