Cellular and viral factors participate in the replication cycle of rotavirus. We report that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1, which activates the small GTPase Arf1 to induce COPI transport processes, is required for rotavirus replication since knocking down GBF1 expression by RNA interference or inhibiting its activity by treatment with brefeldin A (BFA) or Golgicide A (GCA) significantly reduces the yield of infectious viral progeny. This reduction in virus yield was related to a block in virus assembly, since in the presence of either BFA or GCA, the assembly of infectious mature triple-layered virions was significantly prevented and only double-layered particles were detected. We report that the catalytic activity of GBF1, but not the activation of Arf1, is essential for the assembly of the outer capsid of rotavirus. We show that both BFA and GCA, as well as interfering with the synthesis of GBF1, alter the electrophoretic mobility of glycoproteins VP7 and NSP4 and block the trimerization of the virus surface protein VP7, a step required for its incorporation into virus particles. Although a posttranslational modification of VP7 (other than glycosylation) could be related to the lack of trimerization, we found that NSP4 might also be involved in this process, since knocking down its expression reduces VP7 trimerization. In support, recombinant VP7 protein overexpressed in transfected cells formed trimers only when cotransfected with NSP4.