Medical research advances enabling the realization of precision medicine have relied heavily on the biospecimens provided by bioresources to identify the targets and biomarkers that are the focus of the new generation of more effective molecular-based therapies for specific subtypes of diseases. Through the biospecimens they have distributed, bioresources have permitted subtypes of cancers to be identified and molecular features of these subtypes to be effectively targeted. A prototype example is the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), which currently is targeted in breast and gastric cancers. In the future, the use of biospecimens from bioresources will continue to increase the understanding of the molecular actions of drugs and how drugs may be more or less active in subpopulations of patients. Although the biospecimen inventories of the initial forms of bioresources may not have always been optimally planned and, therefore, utilized in supporting biomedical research, bioresources are evolving and overall, bioresource inventories and increasingly their prospective collection capabilities will continue to be a critical component of the research infrastructure.