A unique characteristic of the localized inflammatory tissue in the periodontium (e.g., adult periodontitis [AP]) is the accumulation of IgG (IgG1>IgG2>IgG3≥IgG4) followed by IgA plasma cells (IgA1 > IgA2). However, the exact molecular mechanisms contributing to these elevated B-cell responses at the local disease site are still unknown. Thus, this study has examined the production of cytokines of importance in B-cell responses, e.g., interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 by gingival mononuclear cells (GMC) isolated from patients in severe stages of AP. These cytokines were assessed at the protein and messenger (m)RNA levels to understand their importance for the observed increased B-cell responses present in these tissues. Among the four cytokines tested by respective cytokine-specific, polymerase chain reaction and dot-blot hybridization, high levels of IL-5- and IL-6-specific mRNA were noted in GMC freshly isolated from AP patients. On the other hand, specific message for IL-2 and IL-4 were not present. Further, the analysis of culture supernatants of GMC also revealed that cells from AP patients spontaneously produced IL-5 and IL-6 but not IL-2 and IL-4. In contrast, when peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from the same patients were examined for these cytokines, no detectable levels of mRNA or secreted cytokines were noted. These results showed that GMC from localized inflammatory tissues in severe stages of AP possess a distinct cytokine profile represented by high levels of IL-5 and IL-6 mRNA expression and protein synthesis, whereas IL-2 and IL-4 were not detected. Further, this study supports the concept that AP is a localized inflammatory disease, because GMC from the inflamed tissue actively produce IL-5 and IL-6, whereas peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the same patients do not.