© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: email@example.com. Background: The exact contribution of congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMVI) to permanent hearing loss (HL) in highly seropositive populations is unknown. We determined the contribution of cCMVI to HL and estimated the effectiveness of newborn hearing screening (HS) in identifying neonates with CMV-related HL. Methods: A total of 11 900 neonates born from a population with ≥97% maternal seroprevalence were screened for cCMVI and HL. cCMVI was confirmed by detection of CMV-DNA in saliva and urine at age <3 weeks. Results: Overall, 68 (0.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-0.7) neonates were identified with cCMVI. Of the 91 (0.8%) newborns who failed the HS, 24 (26.4%) were confirmed with HL, including 7 (29.2%; 95% CI, 17.2-59.3) with cCMVI. Another newborn with cCMVI passed the HS but was confirmed with HL at age 21 days. Of the 62 neonates with cCMVI who underwent a complete hearing evaluation, 8 (12.9%; 95% CI, 6.7-23.4) had HL and most (7/8; 87.5%; 95% CI, 46.6-99.7) were identified by HS. The rate of CMV-related HL was 8 per 11 887 neonates (0.7 per 1000 live births). The prevalence ratio of HL among neonates with cCMVI compared to CMV-uninfected neonates was 89.5 (95% CI, 39.7-202.0). No late-onset cCMVI-related HL was detected during a median follow-up of 36 months. Conclusions: cCMVI is an important cause of HL in childhood in all settings. Integrating targeted cCMVI screening among neonates who fail a HS could be a reasonable, cost-effective strategy to identify newborns with early-onset cCMVI-related HL.