Podocytes are dynamic polarized cells that lie on the surface of glomerular capillaries and comprise an essential component of the glomerular filtration barrier. Insulin provoked a sustained, approximately 70%, increase in intracellular calcium concentration in podocytes. RT-PCR revealed the presence of mRNA encoding sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase isoforms 1–3, and plasma membrane Ca2+ pump (PMCA) isoforms 1,3,4; mRNA levels were depressed by the addition of insulin. Inhibitors of PMCA, and the Na+-Ca2+exchanger, increased podocyte permeability to albumin, induced dimerization of protein kinase G type I alpha (PKGIα), and activation of PKGIα-dependent signaling. These data suggest the involvement of calcium and PKGIα signaling in insulin-enhanced filtration barrier permeability in podocytes.