Purpose: To determine if etching technique influences the bond strength of resin cement to root canal dentin. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five extracted teeth were endodontically treated, dowel space prepared, and divided into five groups. Each group was treated with different etchant consistencies: acid gel, semi-gel, low-viscosity gel, liquid, and a self-etching primer. After dowel cementation, four sections were removed from each root and a push-out test was performed. Results: Significant effects were found for etching procedure and for location within the root canal. The apical segment produced the lowest bond strength. Self-etching primer showed the highest bond strength. Conclusions: The consistency of etchant material influenced the bond strength of a prefabricated dowel in the canal. © 2008 by The American College of Prosthodontists.