Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) is produced by nearly all melanomas in vitro and in vivo but not by normal melanocytes, which require exogenous bFGF for growth. In this study, we transduced normal human melanocytes to overexpress two forms of bFGF: (bFGF-Long and bFGF-Short) using replication-deficient adenovirus 5 vectors, bFGF-Long induced the 17.8, 22.5, 23.1 and 24.2 kDa forms of bFGF, whereas bFGF-Short induced only the 17.8 kDa mature form. Growth of cultured melanocytes transduced with either vector was similar to that of nevus and melanoma cells and was independent of exogenous bFGF and of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1, and cyclic AMP enhancers, requiring only phorbol ester as an exogenous mitogen. Like primary melanoma cells, transduced normal melanocytes grew anchorage independently in soft agar. When injected into the dermis of human skin grafted to mice, bFGF-transduced melanocytes proliferated for at least 20 days, whereas cells from control cultures showed poor survival and no proliferation. These results demonstrate that bFGF upregulation is a critical component in melanoma progression.