© 2019 American Chemical Society. Improved cytoreductive surgery for advanced stage ovarian cancer (OC) represents a critical challenge in the treatment of the disease. Optimal debulking reaching no evidence of macroscopic disease is the primary surgical end point with a demonstrated survival advantage. Targeted molecule-based fluorescence imaging offers complete tumor resection down to the microscopic scale. We used a custom-built reflectance/fluorescence imaging system with an orthotopic OC mouse model to both quantify tumor detectability and evaluate the effect of fluorescence image-guided surgery on post-operative survival. The contrast agent is an intraperitoneal injectable nanomolecular probe, composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes, coupled to an M13 bacteriophage carrying a modified peptide binding to the SPARC protein, an extracellular protein overexpressed in OC. The imaging system is capable of detecting a second near-infrared window fluorescence (1000-1700 nm) and can display real-time video imagery to guide intraoperative tumor debulking. We observed high microscopic tumor detection with a pixel-limited resolution of 200 μm. Moreover, in a survival-surgery orthotopic OC mouse model, we demonstrated an increased survival benefit for animals treated with fluorescence image-guided surgical resection compared to standard surgery.