Energy metabolism and bone homeostasis share several regulatory pathways. The AP1 transcription factor ΔFosB and leptin both regulate energy metabolism and bone, yet whether their pathways intersect is not known. Transgenic mice overexpressing ΔFosB under the control of the Enolase 2 (ENO2) promoter exhibit high bone mass, high energy expenditure, low fat mass, and low circulating leptin levels. Because leptin is a regulator of bone and ΔFosB acts on leptin-responsive ventral hypothalamic (VHT) neurons to induce bone anabolism, we hypothesized that regulation of leptin may contribute to the central actions of ΔFosB in the VHT. To address this question, we used adeno-associated virus (AAV) expression of ΔFosB in the VHT of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and genetic crossing of ENO2-ΔFosB with ob/ob mice. In both models, leptin deficiency prevented ΔFosB-triggered reduction in body weight, increase in energy expenditure, increase in glucose utilization, and reduction in pancreatic islet size. In contrast, leptin deficiency failed to prevent ΔFosB-triggered increase in bone mass. Unlike leptin deficiency, galanin deficiency blocked both the metabolic and the bone ΔFosB-induced effects. Overall, our data demonstrate that, while the catabolic energy metabolism effects of ΔFosB require intact leptin and galanin signaling, the bone mass–accruing effects of ΔFosB require galanin but are independent of leptin. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.