BACKGROUND. Few studies have investigated whether the volume of native kidney and liver (when combined with polycystic disease) in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) decreases after renal transplantation. METHODS. Changes in the volume of native kidney (bilateral: n=28; unilateral: n=5) and liver (concomitant polycystic disease: n=18) were analyzed in 33 patients with ADPKD, who underwent renal transplantation. Volumetry was retrospectively conducted using simple computed tomography scan data 6 months before transplantation, at the time of transplantation, and 1, 3, and 5 years after transplantation. Volume change was calculated on the basis of the value at the time of transplantation. RESULTS. Mean±standard deviation values of bilateral native kidney volume were 3100±1417 (range: 756 to 6525; median: 2499) cm at the time of transplantation. Kidney volumes were significantly reduced in all but one patient after renal transplantation, decreasing by 37.7% and 40.6% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. The major proportion of the decrease was observed within the first year posttransplantation. In contrast, 16 of 18 patients showed significant increase of liver volumes after renal transplantation. The mean rates of increase were 8.6% and 21.4% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. As the volume of native polycystic kidneys could be reduced after renal transplantation, resection would be unnecessary if the space for kidney graft is available in the absence of infection, bleeding, or malignancy. When ADPKD is combined with polycystic liver disease, the possibility of intolerable symptoms caused by growing liver cysts should also be taken into account. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.