© 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology. Background and objectives Evidence regarding the differences in clinical outcomes after preemptive kidney transplantation (PKT) and non-PKT in Japan is lacking. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a single center in Japan. Consecutive patients ages.18 years old who had received a kidney transplant from a living donor between November of 2001 and December of 2013 at our institution (n=786) were enrolled. The primary study outcome was the occurrence of clinical events before the end of 2014. Clinical events were defined as any of the following: death with functioning graft (DWFG), graft loss, or post-transplant cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results The median follow-up period was 61.0 (35.3-94.0) months. PKT was performed in 239 patients (30.4%). Clinical events occurred in 78 (9.9%). In the Cox proportional hazard model for univariate analysis, factors found to be associated with higher risk of clinical events included older age, men, ABO incompatibility, longer dialysis duration, diabetes, pretransplant CVD, and large ventricular mass index. PKT was associated with lower risk. Clinical event rate in patients who received a PKT was 3.3% compared with 10.8%, 11.1%, 10.4%, 10.2%, 16.7%, and 16.2% among patients who were on dialysis for,1, 1 to,2, 2 to,3, 3 to,4, 4 to,5, and $5 years before transplant, respectively (P=0.002). The multivariate analysis showed that ABO incompatibility (hazard ratio [HR], 2.98; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.89 to 4.71), duration of dialysis per year (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.11), and diabetes (HR, 3.54; 95% CI, 2.05 to 6.12) were only three independent risk factors for the incidence of clinical events. Conclusions Even in Japan, where the long-term outcomes of patients on hemodialysis are excellent, PKT could be beneficial to reduce DWFG, graft loss, and post-transplant CVD.