© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Introduction: Optimal treatment strategies for low-grade glioma (LGG) remain controversial. We analyzed treatment outcomes and evaluated prognostic factors of adult LGG patients in Korea. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 555 patients diagnosed with WHO grade II LGG (astrocytoma 37.8%, oligoastrocytoma 15.3%, and oligodendroglioma 46.8%) at 14 institutions between 2000 and 2010. Primary and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Propensity-score matching (PSM) analyses were performed to correct imbalances in patient/tumor characteristics among adjuvant treatment groups. Results: The median follow-up time was 83.4 months, and the 5-year PFS and OS rates were 52.2% and 83.0%, respectively. Male, older age, poorer performance status, multiple lobe involvement, and astrocytoma histology were associated with poorer survival. Among the treatment factors, gross total resection (GTR) was associated with better PFS and OS, and adjuvant chemotherapy with improved PFS. Interestingly, adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) did not improve PFS; rather, it was related with poorer OS. Regarding patient/tumor characteristics, the RT group had poorer characteristics than the non-RT group. After PSM, we detected a tendency for improved PFS in the matched RT group, and no significant difference in OS compared with the matched non-RT group. Conclusions: The achievement of GTR is important to improve survival in LGG patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy may enhance PFS, but adjuvant RT did not improve survival outcomes. After PSM, we observed potential impacts of adjuvant RT on PFS. Our results may reflect real-world practice and consequently may help to optimize treatment strategies for LGG.