Dendritic cells (DC) are critical inducers of the adaptive immune response. Extensive characterization of tissue-resident and monocyte-derived DC has revealed diverse stimulatory and regulatory actions, although the role of peripheral blood dendritic cells (PBDC) in maintaining homeostasis remains unclear. Examination of various myeloid (CD11c+CD303-) and plasmacytoid (CD11c-CD303+) DC populations in the peripheral blood of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine recipients revealed a transient decrease in the frequency of CD11c+CD1c-myeloid DC subsets 5-10 days following vaccination, including both CD141+ and CD141-myeloid DC subsets of this population. These populations rebounded by 1 month, while plasmacytoid DC remained stable. The magnitude of the decrease in the CD141+ myeloid DC subset at d5-7 significantly correlated with the induction of influenza specific serum antibodies measured at 1 month following vaccination. These results demonstrate a mobilization of peripheral blood myeloid DC following vaccination and indicate these cells are potential biomarkers of immune response. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.