© 2016 Elsevier Inc. Recently, we reported that earlier stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be categorized into 3 following anatomical subtypes using a hierarchical cluster analysis of cortical thickness across the entire brain: medial temporal-dominant (MT), parietal-dominant (P), and diffuse atrophy (D). The goal of this study was to investigate the rates of cognitive decline in these anatomical subtypes. Of the patients included in the prior study, 100 AD patients (MT, n = 36; P, n = 20; D, n = 44) who underwent follow-up neuropsychological assessments over a 3-year period were included. A linear mixed model analysis was performed to compare the longitudinal changes in neuropsychological test scores. The P subtype exhibited the most rapid cognitive decline in attention, language, visuospatial, memory, and frontal executive function, whereas MT and D subtypes did not differ in their longitudinal decline. When repeating the analyses with early-onset AD, which is known to progress faster than late-onset AD, only the P subtype showed such rapid progression. The P subtype appears to be a unique subtype of AD characterized by an aggressive rate of progression.